Thanks to Paradyne Corporation and Rhythms Net Connections, for use of technical terms used in this glossary.
C D E F G
H I J K L
M N O P Q
R S T U V
W X Y Z
- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. High-speed transmission technology using
existing local loops to transmit POTS and data to and from customer location.
- Data transfer where
upstream and downstream data flow occurs at different speeds, usually a higher
rate of speed downstream, and a slower rate upstream. Reflective of
typical end-user Internet usage patterns, where more data is received than
sent, and no servers (such as web server) are in operation.
- Asynchronous Transfer Mode. High bandwidth, low-delay, connection-oriented,
packet-like switching and multiplexing technique requiring 53-byte fixed-sized
- ADSL Transceiver Unit. The ADSL Forum uses terminology for DSL equipment
based on the ADSL model for which the Forum was originally created. Thus,
the DSL endpoint is known as the ATU-R and the CO unit is known as the ATU-C.
These terms have since come to be used for other types of DSL services, like
RADSL and SDSL. ATU generally represents XDSL services.
- ATU - Central Office. ATU Equipment placed in carrier's central office
in support of DSL-based services.
- ATU - Remote. Equipment placed in customer location in support of DSL-based
- Equipment that provides connectivity for users of distributed network and
includes all the network infrastructure required to provide connectivity between
the edge vehicles. In the context of the Internet, this terms also refers
high-volume, "primary" data carriers that make-up the long-haul
capabilities of the network.
- Central Office, a building used by telecommunication carriers to connect
circuits to communications equipment. Also refers to the equipment located
within the Central Office.
- Digital Access & Cross-Connect System. A digital cross-connect device
for routing lines among multiple ports. The connections are typically set
up in advance of the call.
- Digital Data Service. Private line digital service with data rates of 56/64
- Data Link Connection Identifier. The Frame Relay virtual circuit number
used in internetworking to denote the port to which the destination LAN is
- Domain Name Services (DNS). The collection
of protocols and methods for mapping human-friendly domain names (e.g., select.net)
to machine-friendly IP addresses (e.g., 127.192.11.34) for the purposes of
accessing Internet services.
- DNS Registration
- Domain Name Services (DNS) Registration is the process of recording domain
names in an Internet domain name registry (e.g., InterNIC) so they are recognized
by users of the Internet.
- Refers to transmission speed from the CO to the service user.
- Digital Subscriber Line. DSL is a copper loop transmission technology enabling
high-speed access in the local loop, often referred to as the last mile between
the Network Service Provider and service user.
- Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. Provides high-speed Internet
or Intranet access over traditional twisted-pair telephone wiring through
the use of xDSL technology. Provides simultaneous high-speed digital data
access and POTS analog service over the same twisted-pair telephone line.
Can be installed in the CO or at an Internet Service Provider adjacent to
- Digital Service Unit. Digital loop device residing on customer premises
providing interface to customer's DTE (data terminal equipment).
- Electronic Commerce
- An Internet service that supports an electronic transaction exchange between
customers and vendors to privately, and securely purchase goods and services.
- A baseband LAN specification invented by Xerox Corporation. Ethernet has
become a series of standards referred to as IEEE 802.3.
- Federal Communications Commission. The United States federal regulatory
agency responsible for regulating interstate, Inter-LATA, and international
- Fiber Distributed Data Interface. A LAN Token Ring standard using fiber
- A computer device and/or software that separates a Local Area Network from
a Wide Area Network and prevents unauthorized access to the Local Area Network
through the use of electronic security mechanisms such as IP filtering, address
- Frame Relay Access Device. An interface between customer
DTE (data terminal equipment) and a frame relay data circuit.
- Frame Relay
- A networking technology that uses a form of packet switching with variable
length frames over a shared data network, and is protocol independent.
- Frame Relay Forum. An industry organization whose focus is frame relay
- File Transfer Protocol. Internet tool for sending and/or receiving files
from a server linked to the Internet.
- Graphical User Interface. A computer environment, such as Microsoft Windows
or MacOS, that graphically represents programs, activities and services, and
is typically manipulated through both keyboard and mouse.
- High-speed Concentrators
- A multi-protocol computer device that aggregates lower speed connections
into broadband circuits.
- High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. A technology to put two-way Tl/El
service on normal unshielded twisted pair without repeaters up to 20,000 feet.
- HDSL Transceiver Unit - Central Office.
- HDSL Transceiver Unit - Remote.
- ISDN DSL using 2BlQ line code.
- Internet Engineering Task Force. The primary working body developing new
TCP/IP standards for the Internet.
- Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier. Refers to the primary existing carrier,
as distinguished from new competitive carriers with the advent of telecom
- Internet Access
- The provisioning of connectivity to
- The ability of equipment from multiple vendors to communicate using standardized
- Internet Protocol. A standard describing software that keeps track of the
Internetwork addresses for different nodes, routes outgoing messages, and
recognizes incoming messages.
- Internetwork Packet Exchange. LAN communications protocol used to move
data between server and/or workstation programs running on different network
- Integrated Services Digital Network. Provides circuit-switched access to
the public network of speeds of 64 kbps or Nx64 for voice, data, and video
transmission. Basic Rate ISDN (BRI) and Primary Rate ISDN (PRI) are the two
types of ISDN service.
- Internet Service Provider. A vendor who provides access to the Internet
and usually related services such as e-mail and web hosting.
- InterExchange Carrier. All long distance carriers; also known as Common
- Kilobits per second. 1,000 bits per second.
- Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.
- Local Area Network. Privately owned and administered network for data communications.
Usually a high bandwidth over a limited geographical area for communication
between attached devices.
- Last mile
- Refers to the local loop and is the difference between a local telephone
company office and the service user; a distance of about 2-3 miles or 3-4
- Local Exchange Carrier. LECs provide local transmission services.
- Legacy Network
- A service that allows customers to continue to use their existing network
along with network services based on more advanced technology.
- Megabit per second. 1,000,000 bits per second.
- Main Distribution Frame. Central point where all local loops terminate
in the CO.
- Management Information Base.
- Multiple System Operator. A cable industry term that describes a company
that operates more than one cable TV system.
- Mean time between failure. A measure of hardware reliability.
- Multimedia Solutions
- A combination of networking, computing devices, and software to improve
business productivity by integrating voice, data, and video communication
- A device that enables several data streams to be sent over a single physical
line or a device for combining several channels to be carried by one line
- Network Access Provider. The NAP provides a transit network service permitting
connection of service subscribers to NSPS. The NAP is typically the network
provider that has access to the copper twisted pairs over which the DSL-based
- Network Design Interface Specification. Used for all communication with
network adapters. Works primarily with LAN manager and allows multiple protocol
stacks to share a single NIC.
- Network Equipment Building Standards. A
set of requirements for the reliability and usability of equipment, established
- Also Usenet news. Shared message conferences
on the Internet, arranged hierarchically by subject matter.
- Network Interface Card. The circuit board or other hardware that provides
the interface between a communicating DTE and the network.
- Network Interface Device. An electronic device that connects the telephone
line and the POTS splitter to the local loop.
- Network Management System. The system that is responsible for managing
a network and is typically run on a workstation that presents a GUI to the
network manager. Provides access to a wide variety of information regarding
network configuration, performance, and status. Exchanges information via
a network management protocol, such as SN MP
- Network Operations Center. A centralized point
of network management within a large scale data network.
- A node on a network is usually formed by the presence of a router and user
access equipment. Often, several leased lines are joined together at a network
- Network Service Node.
- Network Service Provider. Can include a local telephone company, ISP, or
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier.
- Network Termination Unit. Equipment at the customer premises which terminates
a network access interface.
- Describes a contiguous bit stream at the Nx64 kbps rate to an application.
Examples are LAN interconnect and point-to-point videoconferencing.
- Optical carrier level n signal. The fundamental transmission rate for SONET.
For example, OC3 operates at 155 Mbps.
- Open Systems Interconnection. OSI Reference Model is the seven-layer network
architecture model of data communication protocols developed by ISO and ITU.
- Private Branch Exchange. A term generally used
to refer to a corporate telephone system.
- Public Switched Telephone Network. Refers to
the country's telephone systems and networks collectively and in total.
- Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line. Transmission technology that supports
both asymmetric and symmetric applications on a single twisted-pair telephone
line and allows adaptive data rates.
- Remote Call Center
- A service concept where the traditional call center workstation is moved
from a central office site to a teleworker's home or small office.
- A device that interconnects LANs that can dynamically route data at Layer
3, the network layer, based on destination and routes available.
- Resource Reservation Setup Protocol. A reservation setup protocol for the
- Remote Terminal. Local loop terminates at Remote Terminal intermediate
points closer to the service user to improve service reliability
- Rich Text Format. A word processing document format designed for compatibility
with a wide range of computing platforms and software packages.
- Remote Termination Unit. A device installed at the service user site that
connects to the local loop to provide high-speed connectivity. Also referred
to as the ATU-R.
- Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Single-pair symmetric DSL.
- Secure Intranets
- A network based on the Internet Protocol that supports intra-company communications
between end-users and employs security mechanisms such as firewalls, encryption,
- Secure Extranets
- A network based on the Internet Protocol that supports inter-company communications
between end-users and employs security mechanisms such as firewalls, encryption,
- Systems Network Architecture. IBM's vendor specific connection-oriented,
virtual circuit network architecture for terminal/host communication.
- Simple Network Management Protocol. The network management protocol used
with TCP/IP-based Internets.
- Small Office/Home Office.
- Synchronous Optical Network. A set of standards for transmitting digital
information over optical networks. Uses fiber optic ring technology.
- Service Wire Center.
- Data transfer where both upstream and downstream data flow occurs at the
same speed. Beneficial in cases where servers (such as web servers) will be
operated, and for which asymmetrical data transfer would be undesirable.
- A type of data circuit that provides 1.544
Mbps of bandwidth between two points. Can be provided through dedicated circuits,
or frame relay.
- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A suite of communication
protocols used by host computers to exchange information. TCP is Layer 4,
the transport layer, of the OSI reference model. IP is Layer 3, the network
layer, of the OSI reference model and provides connectionless datagram service.
- Time Division Multiplexing. Technique where data from multiple channels
may be allocated bandwidth on a single wite pair based on time slot assignment.
- A service concept that will allow customers to work productively and effectively
using the same business tool environment from either work or home.
- A program that lets you connect to other computers on the Internet.
- Refers typically to the transmission speed from the user to the data network.
- Uniform Resource Locator. Used with the World Wide Web as an address, e.g.,
- A term used to describe the collection of newsgroups offered over the Internet.
- Unshielded twisted pair cabling.
- Virtual Circuit. A logical connection or packet-switching mechanism established
between two devices at the start of transmission.
- Very-high-bit rate DSL. Generally refers to 25 to 50+ Mbps transmission
over very short distances.
- Virtual LAN. Workstations connected to an intelligent device which provides
capabilities to define LAN membership.
- Virtual Private Network, a networking service that is provided over a public
network that allows the customer to utilize the service as if it was a private
- Wide Area Network. A computer or communication network that covers a geographic
area which is larger than a city.
- Another way of referring generically to any of the DSL variants: ADSL,
HDSL, SDSL, RADSL, IDSL, VDSL.
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